Major Achievements of Krishi Vigyan Kendra Athiyasan Nagaur-I (2015-16 to 2020-21)

1. Introduction:
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Athiyasan, Nagaur-I was established in the September 1992. The Nagaur district occupies prominent place in the agro-climatic zone-II a, “Internal drainage dry zone”. It covers total geographical area of 17,67,631 ha. The number of 1,575 inhabited villages in the fourteen blocks of the district. Operational area of this KVK encompasses 7 Blocks namely Nagaur, Mundwa, Merta, Khinvsar, Riyanbadi, Ladnu & Jayal. The total population of the district is 33.07 lac with 21.16 per cent scheduled castes and 0.31 per cent scheduled tribes. The sex ratio in the district is 950 and density of population is 187 per square km. The population of the Nagaur district is predominantly rural based with 76.14 per cent of the total population living in villages. Literacy rate is 62.80 per cent which is far below the State average (66.11%). 
Nagaur district has a dry climate with a hot summer. Sand storms are common in summer. The district's climate is marked by extreme dryness, large variations of temperature & highly irregular scanty rainfall patterns. The maximum temperature recorded in the district is 47oC with 0oC as the lowest temperature. The average temperature of the district is 23.33oC. The winter season extends from mid-November till the beginning of March. The rainy season is relatively short, extending from July to mid-September. The average rainfall in the district is 36.16 cm & 59% relative humidity. The net sown area of the district is 12,15,515 ha which is 67 per cent of the total geographical area as against the State average of 49.9 per cent. The total cropped area of the district is 14,18,834 ha. The net irrigated area is 2,77,000 ha and rainfed area is 9,38,515 ha in the district.

KVK, Athiyasan Nagaur I building Seed Processing Plant at KVK, Nagaur I

The livestock population of the district is 31.09 lac, out of which cattle is 4.82 lac, buffalo 5.57 lac, sheep 5.85 lac and goat 14.85 lac. Nagauri breed of cow and Nagauri bull is pre-dominant and famous in nagaur district. Decreasing water table, saline and alkaline soil & underground water, blight & wilt in cumin, gummosis & blight in fennel, leaf curl in chilies, destruction of crops by wild boars and blue bulls are some major problems of the district. The KVK is an innovative transfer of technology institute responsible for identifying and developing new technologies, according to local need and potential to increase the agriculture production. KVK also provides the basis for agro-based agriculture development to increase per unit production under Crops, Livestock, Horticulture and allied Agriculture enterprises and to help the farmers in improving their living standard.
KVK is situated at village Athiyasan on Ajmer Road, 7 km away from District Headquarter and linked with National Highway 58. The farm is having land area of 20 ha out of which 15 ha is cultivated and orchard of ber, soil water testing laboratory, roof rain water structure, Azola Unit, vermi-compost unit, crop cafeteria unit, etc. Besides administrative building, two farmers’ hostel and six residential quarters for staff are also available.
At present, Sr. Sci. and Head along with four SMS (Agronomy, Plant Protection, Extension education & Home Science), two PA (Lab Technician and Computer Operator), one Farm Manager, one Stenographer, two Driver and one Support Staff are working at KVK, Athiyasan, Nagaur-I.
Table 1: Area and Productivity of major crops in Nagaur District in 2015-16 & 2019-20*


Crop
Season 2015-16 Season 2019-20
Area
 (ha)
Productivity (Kg/ha) Area
(ha)
Productivity (Kg/ha)

Green gram

3,81,622 511 6,52,408 626

Pearl millet

3,53,028 698 3,03692 1,019

Cluster bean

1,92,870 452 1,00,357 702

Moth bean

1,21,356 312 62,590 434

Cotton

58,441 455 55,801 476

Wheat

60,279 2,658 68,017 2,834

Mustard

58,569 1,208 72,103 1,193

Cumin

49,645 627 72,815 712

Isabgol

40,046 718 42,353 873

Chickpea

15,588 1,230 1,30,331 1,162

2. Training Achievements:
On Campus Trainings: In all 83 on campus training were organized and 2266 participants were trained on different aspects of IFS i.e. water management, IPM, INM, IDM during 2015-16 to 2019-20. Trained farmers, especially youths were surveyed through follow-up to see impact of the trainings given to them at Institute hq. Survey indicated that more than 18-20 per cent of the farmers trained have established models like: goatery, vermi-compost, ber orchard, water harvesting system etc. at their farm.

 

Training on water management in crops,
Date- 21/01/2020, Venue: KVK, Nagaur-I
Training in IPM  in Kharif crops,
Date- 21/06/2019, Venue- KVK, Nagaur-I

Off Campus Trainings: Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Athiyasan, Nagaur I organized total 108 off campus trainings and trained 2183 participants during 2015-16 to 2019-20. Off Campus Training were conducted at innovative farmers’ farm.  These trainings were mainly focused on management of Kasuri methi, water management, dry land farming and management of saline- alkali soil and other interventions which can help farmers to increase his income with sustainability of resources.

Women empowerment through food processing,
Date- 26/07/2019,Venue:
Weed management in Pearl millet Date-06/08/2019, Venue- Village: Dhehari (Jayal) Nagaur-I

Sponsored Trainings: Twenty seven trainings sponsored by WDRA, ATMA, NABARD and Agriculture Department on Bee keeping, safe storage of cereals and pulses in go-down, dry land farming were held and 779 farmers and rural youth were trained during 2015-16 to 2019-20.

Ware House Awareness Programme (WDRA), Date- 24/02/2020, Venue- KVK, Nagaur-I Beekeeping for Rural Scheduled Caste Youth, Date- 06/02/2020, Venue- KVK, Nagaur-I

Table 2:  On Campus, Off Campus and Sponsored agencies training organized for farmers


Year
On Campus Training Off Campus Training Sponsored Training
No. Participants No. Participants No. Participants

2015-16

19 463 23 418 - -

2016-17

19 489 21 453 6 173

2017-18

15 555 12 353 8 225

2018-19

15 255 24 319 10 256

2019-20

15 504 28 640 3 125

Total

83 2266 108 2183 27 779

3. Frontline Demonstrations:

a. FLDs on Pulses (NFSM): Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Athiyasan conducted FLDs on Green gram, Moth bean and Chickpea during 2015-16 to 2019-20. During last five years, chick pea variety GNG 1581 recorded additional net return of Rs 9,130 to 16,006/- per ha over local chickpea crop. Similarly, Green gram variety GM 4 was also found popular as it gave net return of Rs. 48,050/- per ha with additional net return of Rs 10,235/- per ha during 2015-16.  Variety GaM 5 which was also found remunerative (Rs 10,076/- per ha) in FLDs laid out in 2019-20.


Table 3: Seed yield and economics of FLDs laid out at farmers’ fields under NFSM on pulses

Year & No. Variety Seed yield (q/ha) Per cent increase over FP Net Return (Rs/ha) Add. Net Return over FP
(Rs/ha)
Site/ Village
Farmer practice Improved Practice Farmer practice Improved Practice

Green gram

2015-16 (10) GM 4 619 750 21.2 37,815 48,050 10,235

Budhi (Nagaur)

2017-18 (20) GM 4 241 314 30.3 -2029 889 2,918

Kasnau, Fardod,  Inana and Nagaur

2017-18 (59) Satya 239 300 25.5 -2146 273 2,419

Kasnau, Eyyar and Fardod

2018-19 (74) GaM 5 357 443 24.1 10,933 15,692 4,759

Phagli, Gudla and Beetwal (Nagaur)

2019-20 (25) GaM 5 564 712 26.2 25,868 35,904 10,036

Dhehari (Jayal)

Chickpea

2015-16 (47) GNG 1581 1,330 1,650 24.1 46,910 61,300 14,390

Roon (Mundwa)

2016-17 (40) GNG 1581 1,500 1,789 19.3 56,400 72,406 16,006

Kukanwali

2017-18 (125) GNG 1581 1,226 1,424 16.2 29,343 38,474 9,130

Hudel, Baidwa, Chamawas and Alkpura

2018-19 (70) GNG 1958 1,524 1,931 26.7 41,964 58,829 16,865

Baldu and Genana (Ladnu)

2019-20 (50) RSG 974 1,565 2,019 29.0 50,798 78,925 28,126

Roon (Mundwa)

Moth bean

2016-17 (73) RMO 257 528 645 22.2 8,220 11,090 2,870

Katoti

2017-18 (50) CZM 2 283 377 33.2 -960 1,156 2,116

Jhadeli, Janeva and Deh

2018-19 (68) RMO 435 265 325 22.6 3,670 5,948 2,278

Tangla and Ganewa (Jayal)

2019-20 (50) RMO 435 399 515 29.1 12,413 17,746 5,332

Jhadeli and Didiya kalan (Jayal)


Field day on CFLD-Chickpea, Dated-07/03/2020, Venue-Village: Roon, (Mundwa,  Nagaur ) Field visit on CFLD-Green gram Dated- 06/08/2019,Venue- Village: Dhehari (Jayal, Nagaur)

b. FLDs on Oilseeds (NFSM):
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Athiyasan, Nagaur-I was conducted FLDs on Mustard, Sesame and Groundnut as they are main crop of the district. Groundnut variety HNG 69 & HNG 123 recorded additional return of Rs. 20,737/- and Rs. 24,696/- per ha during 2018-19 and 2019-20, respectively over local crop. Similarly, Mustard variety Giriraj & NRCHB 101 provided additional net return ranging between Rs 12,778 to 22,629/- per ha during 2018-19 and 2019-20 over local crops. Sesame variety RT 346 & RT 351 were also found popular as these verities provided 21-30 per cent increase in seed yield over local crop.


Table 4: Seed yield and economics of FLDs laid out at farmers’ fields under NFSM on oilseeds

Year & No. Variety Seed yield (q/ha) Per cent increase over FP Net Return (Rs/ha) Add. Net Return over FP
(Rs/ha)
Site/ Village
Farmer practice Improved Practice Farmer practice Improved Practice

Mustard

2015-16 (10) Laxmi 1,243 1,472 18.4 24,205 30,170 5,965

Inana (Mundwa)

2015-16 (75) PM 27 2,150 2,430 13.0 46,650 55,060 8,410

Dhehari,Yamdiya, Magrawas and Panchla sidh

2016-17 (50) DRMRIJ 31 1,780 2,058 15.6 42,120 51,455 9,335

Dhehari and Dotina

2016-17 (20) NRCDR 2 1,665 1,975 18.6 38,310 47,500 9,190

Bhaward and Gudla

2017-18 (100) PM 26 1,548 1,699 9.8 34,222 39,259 5,036

Basuna, Phanchala and Thanbadia

2018-19 (75) Giriraj 1,579 1,982 25.5 28,970 41,748 12,778

Dhehari (Jayal) and Gudla (Nagaur)

2019-20 (70) Giriraj & NRCHB-101 1,675 2,120 26.6 46,968 69,597 22,629

Dhehari (Jayal) and Roon (Mundwa)

Sesame

 

2015-16 (10) RT 346 451 549 21.7 18,515 24,385 5,870

Sinod (Nagaur)

2017-18 (40) RT 351 268 347 29.5 6,166 10,350 4,184

Budhi and Sinod

2018-19 (60) RT 351 257 348 35.4 6,059 10,246 4,186

Sinod (Nagaur)

2019-20 (25) RT 351 295 385 30.5 7,980 12,230 4,250

Kasnau (Jayal)

Ground nut

 

2018-19 (50) Rasdar (local) 2,200 2,666 21.2 76,080 96,817 20,737

Baldu (Ladnu) and Khatoda(Khinwsar)

2019-20 (75) HNG 69 & HNG 123 2,250 2,779 23.5 84,025 1,08,721 24,696

Baldu and Genana (Ladnu)


 

Field day on CFLD-Mustard, Dated-22/02/2020, Venue-Village: Dhehari (Jayal, Nagaur ) Field day on CFLD-Groundnut, Dated-21/10/2020, Venue- Village: Baldu (Ladnu, Nagur)

c. FLDs (Other Crops):
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Athiyasan, Nagaur-I also conducted FLDs on Clusterbean, Pearl millet, Cumin and Isabgol during the period of 2015-16 to 2019-20. FLDs on cumin variety GC 4 conducted during 2018-19 & 2019-20 gave additional net return of Rs 30,970/- & 37,821/- per ha over locally grown cumin. Pearl millet variety MPMH 17 recorded 20-23.5 per cent increase in seed yield over local pearl millet crop. Isabgol variety RI 1 gave net return of Rs 92,164/- per ha with seed yield of 1,291 kg/ ha.


Table 5:  Seed yield and economics of FLDs on other crops laid out at farmers’ fields

Year & No. Variety Seed yield (q/ha) Per cent increase over FP Net Return (Rs/ha) Add. Net Return over FP
(Rs/ha)
Site/Village
Farmer practice Improved Practice Farmer practice Improved Practice

Cluster bean

 

2015-16 (20) RGC 1066 679 801 18.0 14,165 17,735 3,570

Athiyasan (Nagaur)

Pearl millet

 

2018-19 (20) MPMH 17 888 1,065 19.9 8,559 12,194 3,635

Budhi (Nagaur)

2019-20 (25) MPMH 17 1,151 1,421 23.5 13,678 19,061 5,383

Malgaon (Nagaur)

Cumin

 

2018-19 (10) GC 4 725 945 30.3 76,030 1,07,000 30,970

Dhehari (Jayal)

2019-20 (10) GC 4 799 1,052 31.7 89,270 1,27,091 37,821

Balaya (Nagaur)

Chickpea

 

2018-19 (25) GNG 1581 1,560 1,920 23.1 36,960 51,420 14,460

Pipliya (Khinwsar) and Shyamsar (Nagaur)

2019-20 (25) RSG 974 1,540 1,980 28.6 48,159 69,069 20,910

Inana (Nagaur) and  Didiya kalan (Jayal)

Isabgol

 

2018-19 (25) RI 1 1,024 1,291 26.1 67,842 92,164 24,322

Dhehari (Jayal)

Field day on FLD-Cumin, Dated-29/01/2020 and Venue- Village: Balaya (Nagaur) Field day on FLD-Pearl millet, Dated: 01/10/2019, Venue- Village: Malgoan (Nagaur)

d. FLDs on Nutri-garden:
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Athiyasan, Nagaur-I conducted FLDs on Nutri-garden during the period of 2018-19 to 2019-20 to increase awareness of green vegetable consumption amongst rural community. Per capita vegetables consumption of farm families were increased by 156-200 per cent in the season 2018-19 and 2019-20 over their vegetable consumption before this intervention.


Table 6: Results of FLDs on Nutri-Garden

Year & No. FLD Per capita veg. consumption in g % increase over FP Site/Village
Farmer practice Improved Practice
2018-19 (06) Nutri-garden (5 types seasonal veg. of improved varieties) 44 132 200 Athiyasan, Budhi, Phagli and  Jodhiyasi (Nagaur)
2019-20 (15) Nutri-garden  (12 types seasonal veg. of improved varieties) 80 205 156 Dhehari (Jayal)

Field day on FLD (Nutri-garden),  Dated-16/02/2019,Venue- Village: Dhehari (Jayal) (Nagaur -I) Field day on FLD (Nutri-garden), Dated- 30/09/2019, Venue- Village: Rol (Jayal) (Nagaur I)

4. On Farm Trials:

Title: Evaluation of newly released varities of Mustard crop
Result: Mustard variety RH 749 gave seed yield and net return of 19.0 q/ha and Rs 37,100 /ha respectively. The seed yield of this variety was higher over variety RNG 145 by 22.7 percent.

Title: Evaluation of high yielding varieties of mung bean
Result: GM- 6 mung bean variety recorded 11.10 q/ha seed yield and net return of Rs.58,470/ha. The seed yield of mung bean variety GM 6 was 30.0 per cent higher over GaM 5.

Title: Evaluation of foliar application of Azoxystrobin+Tebuconazole for management of blight & wilt in cumin
Result: Foliar application of Azoxystrobin + Tebuconazole @ 1.0 l/ha farmers recorded maximum net return of Rs. 1,02,717/- per ha with B:C ratio of 4.10. as against net return of Rs. 74,950/- per ha & B:C ratio of 3.29 recorded with foliar application of spray of carbendazim 2 g/l (Farmers Practice).

Title: Management of pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera damage in chickpea crop through pheromone trap
Result: Installation of Pheromone trap (10/ha) and spray of HaNPV for management of pod borer, recorded maximum net return of Rs. 67,036/- per ha with B: C ratio of 3.26 as against net return of Rs. 44,525/- per ha & B: C ratio of 2.60 recorded under no use of pheromone and HaNPV.

Evaluation of Improved variety RH-749 of Mustard crop, Date-27/02/2019, Venue- Village: Khajwana, Mundwa, Nagaur Evaluation of High Yielding Variety GM-6 of Mung bean crop, Date-30/09/2019, Venue- Village: Rol, Jayal, Nagaur

5. Villages Adopted and Activities carried out in village:

Village- Dhehari, Tehsil- Jayal and Village- Roon, Tehsil- Mundwa were adopted by the KVK, Athiyasan, Nagaur I.  The purpose of village adoption was to enhance their family income by implementing new agro-techniques in their farming. At first, base line survey was conducted by a team of Scientists along with the needs and categorization of farmers. A detailed plan of work was chalk out and executed to improve the day to day living of farmers through awareness programme on Soil health, Integrated Nutrient and Weed Management, Efficient water management, Integrated Pest Management, Post-harvest management and Value addition, Storage, Marketing etc. FLDs were laid out soil and water testing was done and field days  and interaction were conducted on various crop management practices, water harvesting techniques, seed storage, micro irrigation system, value addition and post-harvest management etc.

Selected innovative farmers were also brought to KVKs to attend different programmes implemented by KVKs. Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana, Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana, Fasal Bima Yojna, National Agriculture Market (e-NAM) schemes were explained to the farmers. Farmers were also apprised with the techniques to enhance resource use efficiency by using right amount of inputs at right time at right place. In all 255 demos. of improved varieties of Kharif and Rabi crops were laid out in the 125 ha area which improved the overall income and knowledge levels of farmers of adopted villages.

Field day on FLD-Cumin, Dated-25/02/2019,  Venue- Village: Dhehari, Jayal, Nagaur Field day on FLD-Isabgol, Dated- 02/03/2019 Venue- Village:  Dhehari, Jayal, Nagaur

6. Seed Production:

Table 6: Seed production at KVK Farms

Year

Crops

variety Quantity (q)
2015-16

Green gram, Guar

GM4, RGC 1066 RGC1003, RGC 1017

42.65
2016-17

Green gram

GM 4, IPM 2-3

16.14
2017-18

Green gram, Cumin

GM 4, GC 4, GaM 5, MH 421

10.89
2018-19

Green gram

MH 421, GaM 5

6.73
2019-20

Taramira

RTM 314

43.00
Total 119.41

7. Other Products: Nil

8. Special programmes (National levels programmes):

Jai Shakti Abhiyan:  A Kisan mela was organized at KVK, Athiyasan, Nagaur-I on 3rd September 2019 under Jal Shakti Abhiyan in which total 635 participants were involved. District Collector Nagaur Shri Dinesh Kumar Yadav was the chief guest of the programme. Farmers were apprised with different methods to save and conserve water.

 

Seed Hub Project: ICAR, New Delhi has sanctioned a project on “Creation of Seed Hub for increasing indigenous production of pulses in Rajasthan and Haryana” in financial year 2016-17.The objective of this project was to produced seed of improved varieties of Green gram, Moth bean and Chickpea and other pulses through Seed production farms of KVKs, Research Center and under farmer participatory mode at farmers’ fields.  The seed hub was established at Nagaur I during the second phase and an amount of Rs 150/- lacs were sanctioned, out of which Rs 50 Lacs was utilized for the creating seed production infrastructures & seed processing facilities during 2016-17. Rs 100 Lacs was allotted for revolving fund to meet out the various expenses for production, procurement and processing of seed.

Table 7: Seed production under seed hub project done at various centers during 2016-17 to 2019-20

Year Crop Variety Seed produced (q) Total quantity (q)

2016-17

Green gram

GM 4, IPM 2-3

140,10 150

2017-18

Green gram

GaM 5, MH 421, GM 4, Satya

81, 52,10,27 170

Moth bean

RMO 435

30 30

2018-19

Green gram

GM 6, GaM 5, MH 421

10, 83, 18 111

Moth bean

RMO 435

08 08

Chickpea

GNG 1958

25 25

2019-20

Green gram

GM 6, GM 4, MH 421

40.01, 66.04, 23.00 129.05

Moth bean

RMO 435

0.69 0.69

 

   

 

Processing unit of seed hub
Date: 19.12.2018, Venue: KVK, Athiyasan, Nagaur
Visited by Dr. S.K. Dalal, DAC&FW, New Delhi Date: 25.07.2018, Venue: KVK, Athiyasan, Nagaur

9. Kisan Melas: Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Athiyasan, Nagaur-I organized Kisan Mela in every year and actively participated farm women and farmers. KVK, scientific staffs delivered lectures to farmers in technical session of kisan mela in different topics namely improved cultivation of crops, integrated pests & diseases management, different government schemes, value addition and women empowerment and solved the problems of farmers.

Kisan Mela
Date-25/03/2018, Venue- KVK, Athiyasan, Nagaur-I
District level Kisan Mela
Date- 24/01/2019, Venue- KVK, Athiyasan, Nagaur-I

10. Other activities of KVK (No.):

Year Field Days Exhibitions Advisory Services Film Shows Diagnostic Visits Farmer Scientist Interactions
2015-16 5 2 12 14 1 3
2016-17 8 2 14 11 2 7
2017-18 8 5 1124 19 3 13
2018-19 15 4 740 21 13 19
2019-20 17 11 3075 26 25 21
Total 53 24 4965 91 44 63

11. Publications:

Year Extension Manuals Booklets Popular Articles Research Papers Pamphlets Leaflets
2015-16 - - - - 08 03
2016-17 - - 02 - 05 07
2017-18 - - - - 02 08
2018-19 01 06 06 03 04 11
2019-20 02 02 04 03 13 17
Total 03 08 12 03 32 46

12. Five major revolutions happened in the jurisdiction area of KVK:

  • Participatory mode seed production programme at farmers’ field was initiated from 2018-19 under seed hub project sanctioned by ICAR, New Delhi for providing good quality seed to the farmers of Nagaur District. During 2019-20 seed production programme of different pulses have been launched under farmer participatory mode in 68 ha in collaboration with RSSC, Nagaur. This programme will improved seed replacement rate of the farmers.
  • Implementation of FLDs on Pulses (NFSM) resulted in enhancement of area, production and productivity of green gram resulting increase in net income of farmers. The farmers of Merta tehsil in Nagaur District are harvesting as high as 18-20 q seed per ha from rain-fed green gram.
  • The trainings on the theme water conservation conducted on and off campus by KVK, Nagaur resulted in increase in number of rain water harvesting structures at farmers’ fields.
  • The cultivation practices of Nagauri methi were disseminated to the farmers through on and off campus training resulting improvement in quality and productivity of Nagauri methi. This intervention was very useful and provided good support to the farmers. Because of the soil and agro climatic condition existing in Jayal and surrounding area, the quality of Nagauri methi produced from this area is very superior.
Processing of Nagauri methi by farmers in Jayal Tehsil of Nagaur District Cleaning and drying of Nagauri methi under supervision of SMS Home Science, KVK, Athiyasan, Nagaur-I

13. Other significant achievements:

  • Civil work of seed hub project and installation of seed processing unit at KVK, Athiyasan, Nagar-I was done timely.
  • Soil testing laboratory at the Institutes started functioning with the facility of testing of major as well as micro- nutrients of the soil samples for farmers on cost basis.
  • Drinking water pipeline was sanctioned by Hon’ble Vice Chancellor, AU, Jodhpur and Rs 10.00 lacs were granted for this work. PHED, Nagaur installed three inch diameter pipeline from its reservoir to the institute and regular supply of water is available.
  • Sh. Ummed Singh Budhee and Sh. Multana Ram Choudhary, progressive farmers were awarded “Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyay Antodaya Award” for innovative practices of Ber cultivation through rain water harvesting and protected cultivation respectively on the eve of birthday centenary celebration of Pandit Deen dayl ji on dated 25.09.2016 by AU, Jodhpur and ATARI, Jodhpur.
  • Sh. Mayur Lalwani, Young Agri-entrepreneur received recognition from Hon’ble Minister Sh. C.R. Choudhary, Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution, by AU, Jodhpur.
  • Three batches of 15 days fertilizer certificate course with total no. of 90 farmers and Dealers organized successfully. Revenue of Rs 2.33 lakhs was generated for KVK, RF through these trainings and many trainees stated own business of fertilizer sale.

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